Close
slider

Chemistry

SECTION: A
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
UNIT 1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY

Matter and its nature Dalton’s atomic theory: Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound: Physical quantities and their measurement in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figure, S I units, dimensional analysis: Laws of chemical combination: Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae: Chemical equations and stoichiometry

UNIT 2: STATE OF MATTER

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous state

Gaseous state:
Measurable properties of gases, Gas laws, Boyle’s law, Charls’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure: Concept of Absolute scale of a temperature: Ideal gas equation: Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates): Concept of average, root mean square and most parabolic velocities: Real gases, derivation from Ideal behavior, compressibility factor and van der Walls equation.

Liquid state:
Properties of liquid: vapor pressure, viscosity nd surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).

Solid State:
Classification solids: molecular ionic, covalent metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea): Bragg’s law and its application: Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fee, bee and hep lattices), voids, calculation involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids: Electrical and magnetic properties.

UNIT 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations: Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photo-electronic effect, Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen Atom, its postulates, derivation of the relation for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model: Dual nature of matter, De-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, Concept of atomic orbital as one electron wave functions: Variation of ¥ and ¥2 with r for 1s and 2s orbital: various quantum numbers (principle, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance: shapes of s, p and d orbital, electron spin and spin quantum number: Rules for filling electrons spin and spin quantum number: Rules for filling electrons in orbital Aufbau principle, Paul’s exclusion principle and Hand’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half filled and completely filled orbital.

UNIT 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

Kossel- Lewis approach to chemical bond formation concept of ionic and covalent bonds

Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds, calculation of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding: Concept of electro- negativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment: Valance shell electron pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shape of simple molecules.

Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory, its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbital: Resonance

Molecular Orbital Theory –Its important features, IC AOs types of molecular orbital (bonding, anti-bonding) sigma and pi- bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homo-nuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy

Elementary idea of metallic bonding, Hydrogen bonding and its applications

UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.

First law of thermodynamics- Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity: Hess’s law of constant heat summation: Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution

Second law of thermodynamics- Spontaneity of processes: ∆s of the universe and ∆G of the system as criteria for spontaneity ∆G (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.

UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS

Ionic equilibrium- Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowery and Lewis) and their ionization acid- base equilibrium (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salt and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salt and solubility products, buffer solutions.

UNIT 7: EQULIBRIUM

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium

Equilibria involving physical process: Solid-liquid, liquid, gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes

Equilibria involving chemical process: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Ke) and their significance, significance of ∆G and ∆Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst Le Chatelier’s principle

UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions,

Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlarusch’s law and its applications

Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement: Nernst equation and its applications: Relationship between cell potential and Gibb’s energy change: Dry cell and lead accumulator, Fuel cells Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature pressure and catalyst: elementary and complex reaction, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions, Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation)

UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS:

Different method for expressing concentration of solution molality, malarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both) vapor pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law Ideal and non-ideal solutions vapor pressure composition, plot for ideal and non ideal solutions: Colligative properties of dilute solutions relative lowering of vapor pressure, depression of freezing point , elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure: Determination of molecular mass using Colligative properties: Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance

UNIT-10 SURFACE CHEMISTRY

Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorptions and their characteristics, factors, affecting adsorption of gases on solids Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions

Catalysis state – distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids, lyophilic, lyophobic: multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation: Emulsion and their characteristics

1 2 3

Physics   Maths